Food and safety management is crucial for all the hotels for the purpose of delivering healthy and comfortable services to the clients. In contemporary scenario, hotels and restaurants have been using several methods for food safety due to the concern towards hygienic principles. It is the duty of food service providers to consider hygiene aspects while delivering amenities to the customers so that the standard of services can be maintained (Food safety, 2015). Thus the present study has been made on Park Plaza Riverbank which is a four start hotel operating business in UK. Recently the hotel has faced food poisoning incident in which several guests were hospitalized and among them, one is seriously ill. The wedding party has taken legal action against the hotel; therefore the present study has been describing all the health and safety regulations which the hotel is using while delivering services to the guests.
Furthermore, the study is also stating comparison of food poisoning and food borne infections along with their positive outcomes. The categories of food spoilage agents have also been discussed in the subsequent study and on that basis, methods of food preservation are also mentioned. Food preservation methods are highly effective since that helps the hotel to preserve the food at the time when it is not used in bulk; hence Park Plaza Riverbank has maintained such provisions for the same. Later on researcher has also stated significance of food storage methods ad how it aids in reducing the amount of food contamination. Cleaning and disinfection both the processes are highly required in the hotel so that customer interest can be retained for longer period. Thus lastly food hazard risk assessment measures are mentioned and along with that researcher had also discussed HACCP based food safety management system.
1.1 Mention some of the concerns around food contamination as well as the methods used to minimize and stop food poisoning
It has been observed that Park Plaza Riverbank hotel has been managing suitable food service provision and for that numerous methods have also been taken into account. The hotel emphasizes only on delivering safe and quality food to the customers so as to show the concern towards hygienic aspects (Boisrobert and et.al., 2009). At the same time, the food is being stored without the use of chemical aspects so that it can be used for longer period. Food contamination control is important to prevent adulteration of food products with hazards that might injure or compromise the health of the consumer. Prevention is required as once food is contaminated, it becomes hard for the hotel to use to decontaminate it.
Codex is a biological, chemical and physical agent which is if added in the food reduces the health aspect and causes injury and health issues to the person consuming the product. Salmonella, clostridia and listeria are some of the main concerns of bacteria that affects the quality of food since it arises from animals and causes infection to the human body (Knechtges, 2011). As mentioned in the present study, the subsequent hotel has faced issues related to food poisoning; therefore it is must for the hotel to minimize the possibilities of food poisoning by delivering quality services to the clients. Thus in such context, it is crucial for the chefs and F&B department to check the quality of food prior delivering food to the end users.
1.2 Compare the characteristics of food poisoning and food-borne infections
Food poisoning is different with that to food borne infection but both changes the health of human being and sometimes the terms are often used interchangeably by the consumers. Food borne infection is caused by the ingestion of food containing live bacteria which further also grows and establishes in the human intestinal tract. Food-borne intoxication also results from the bacterial growth in the food item (Wallace, 2014). This is hazardous to consume and at the same time, it also impedes the quality of food products. It has been seen that unavailability of suitable temperature can also impact the quality of food; hence the food must be preserved as per the defined temperature. The severity of the food borne illness depends on the pathogenic microorganism or toxin ingested, the amount of food consumed (dose), and the health status of the individual.
Food poisoning also reduces the quality of food and similarly it also impedes human health through several sorts of infections and bacteria. The most common symptom of food-borne illenss is diarrhea which contains pathogenic microorganism. Apart from this, food-borne illness is also considered as life threating for those who have less immune power. Food that gets contaminated is indeed unhealthy for the person to consume due to involvement of bacteria and other hazardous elements (Lawley, Curtis and Davis, 2012). It has been observed from the operational analysis that Park Plaza Riverbank hotel has maintained adequate facilities for food preservation; however due to changing temperature, food got poisoned and affected the health of clients. The common symptoms of food poisoning are typhoid, allergic infections and stomach ache.
1.3 Discuss how food-borne illness can be controlled
Apparently it is the duty of every food provider to protect the food from bacteria and hazardous elements so that most of the consumers can consume it successfully. There should be proper systems and monitoring process at Park Plaza Riverbank hotel so that food can be prevented through hazardous aspects and risks (Amjadi and Hussain, 2005). The hotel should have to emphasize on cleanliness and hygienic concerns so that customer interest can be protected. At the same time, it is also crucial for the hotel to protect food from insects and rodents that often carry harmful bacteria by storing in airtight containers in a cool and dry place. There should be proper temperature controlling methods so that prevention systems can actually work in suitable manner.
The hotel should have to identify food that are most likely to cause food poisoning so that it can be prepared in lesser quantity only. In order to prevent the food from hazardous elements, all the employees of the hotel should make sure that only fresh and hygienic elements are added into the food products. Prior delivering the food to the consumers, it is crucial for the hotel to check the quality aspects through inspection and monitoring process. Food should always be kept separately as per their categories so as to protect them spoilage (Boisrobert and et.al., 2009). The hotel should avoid keeping food in plastic jars since that reduces degree of nutrition from the food. It is also mandatory for the service provider to specify certain standards while preparing food such as cleanliness standards, hygienic elements and etc.
2.1 Designing poster
It is the duty of staff members working in Park Plaza Riverbank hotel to ensure that food being served to the customers is fit to be consumed and is free from bacteria etc. Bacteria requires water to survive and generally grows of food with a water activity of at least 0.85. Furthermore, water food like chicken has a water activity of 0.99 and thus it provides an ideal environment (Tryland, 2011). Due to this basic reason food like chicken generally comes in contact of bacteria and if eaten causes food poisoning and harm to the body of an individual. Therefore, it is required to ensure that food served is fresh and must be stored in place where they cannot come into contact with bacteria and other types of germs.
It has been identified that there are more than 300,000 species of fungi present which are thread like and produces spores that can be easily spread in water and air. Generally molds has three primary parts which are root threads, spores at the end of stalks and root threads (Brimer, 2011). Therefore, it is necessary for staff members working in Park Plaza riverbank London to ensure that all the food items are not spolied due to mold and can lead to food poisoning.
2.2 Methods of food preservation and equipments required
Various effective methods are present through which employees working in Park Plaza Riverbank hotel can preserve food and in turn it can be saved from bacteria, germs and other type of things that are unfavourable (Brimer, 2011). Food can be preserved in high and low temperature where some items can be stores in cold water such as sea food named crabs and oysters. It is regarded as one of the traditional method in order to store food and in turn items can be preserved for longer period of time with the help of cold storage system. It is also considered as burial method of preserving food and in turn oxygen can be controlled. In case if all the food items are stores in proper temperature then it is possible to save them from every type of harm and it is not possible for germs and bacteria to harm it. Equipments required for storing food in cold involves refrigerator with the help of which employees can save food from being damaged. In short refrigerators supports in preventing food to be in touch with bacteria and other type of germs and in turn kills germs as they cannot survive in high temperature.
On the other hand different type of food items are also present that can be saved from harm by storing in hot places such as in steamer and other type of electronic devices supports in storing the food and keeps it fresh for longer period of time (Motarjemi and Lelieveld, 2013). Therefore, it is the duty of management to ensure that food electronic devices for storing food are being present with the help of which fresh food can be offered to customers. Apart from this, chemical are also used for storing food items as many chemicals kills micro organisms. Range of chemicals used for preserving foods are sorbic acid, benzoic acid and sulfur dioxide. Therefore, by using such chemicals it is possible to keep food items fresh.
3.1 Key steps in temperature control system
Temperature control system plays significant as through this it is possible to prevent food from being spoiled (Anokwulu, 2007). It is necessary for staff members working in Park Plaza Riverbank London to understand the way in which temperature control system can be used for welfare of the customers and they can be served right kind of food. Basically two steps are present which includes:
- Using thermometer to take temperature of food
- Cooking food at the internal temperature required for specific period of time
Further, it is necessary to consider that different food items that must be cooked for different time with the aim to reach suitable internal temperature. For instance in case of fruits and vegetables they must be cooked at an temperature of 135 degree Fahrenheit for 15 seconds in starting so that it is safe for consumption (Fanning and Wall, 2011). Furthermore, the food items such as ready to eat items and grains must also be cooked in similar manner. Items such as eggs, ground meats, roasts and ham must be cooked till its internal temperature reaches to 155 degree Fahrenheit. Moreover, temperature control system is also required as various food items are also hazardous and in turn they contain bacteria that leads to food poisoning. It involves food items such as dairy products, sea food, processed food and vegetables etc. It is necessary that temperature of such food items must be at 5 degree Celsius or 60 degree or hotter. On the other hand temperature control in case of rice can be done by punning cold water with the help of this.
Further, cooling as temperature control system can be done by considering following stages:
- Keeping a fridge thermometer in the coldest part of fridge and checking its temperature.
- Storing the most perishable food in the coldest part of the fridge
3.2 Summary of methods for storing the food safety
In order to store the food items safely methods such as drying, salting, canning and pickling. Drying as a traditional method supports in storing food by ensuring the growth of microbes. In this method, the food is exposed to high temperature and in turn supports in eliminating moisture. Further, the temperature is regarded as low due to which it is not possible to cook food (Kumar and Shariff, 2011). Along with this the presence of good circulation of air makes food dry and assist in making unfavourable condition for the growth of micro-organisms. Thus with the help of drying it is possible to inhibit the growth of mold, bacteria etc. On the other hand when technique like canning is used then food is stored in tight containers and before adopting this method it is necessary to process the content of the food item. Appropriate technique of canning involves avoiding the spoilage by heating the food items for specific period of time (Liu, Kerr and Hobbs, 2012). At the time of canning air is removed from the jar and the food is cooled down at the time of creating vacuum. Further, with the help of this technique micro organisms are not at all allowed to enter and spoil the food commodity. Therefore, with the help of this method it is possible to store the food item in safe and secured manner. Whereas, picking as a method is also effective where vinegar and salt brine are used. It is a type of chemical that makes environment unfavourable for the microbes to flourish. Further, only tight containers are used in pickling which prevents moisture from coming inside and through this food can be saved in every possible manner.
3.3 Importance of personal hygiene in the control of food contamination
Personal hygiene plays important role in contamination of food. Further, it is possible that individual or worker in food processing enterprise can carry pathogens internally or in their hands, skins etc (Shariff, 2011). In case if personal hygiene is not followed then it can lead to contamination of eatables and other items. In case when hands are properly washed before preparing food then chances of food contamination decreases at faster pace. Further, the microbes that are present in the hands are washed away and in turn hygiene food is being served to the customers. Apart from this it is necessarily required for individual to wear clean clothes at the time of preparing food as sometime it is possible that germs and bacteria present in the clothes can enter into the food which makes it even more contaminated.
Further, it is the duty of management to ensure that dress provided to the staff members who are preparing food is clean and through this it can be known that all the food items prepared are hygiene and safe too (Tryland, 2011). In short the clean uniform and other type of dress material can support in minimizing the risk of food contamination can be reduced to extent and in turn better food facility is being provided to the customers. Wearing clean clothes prevents diseases due to which microbes occurs and they are transferred in food due to personal hygiene present. Personal hygiene also takes into consideration washing of hands timely and in proper manner so that quality of food may not be affected due to this as the food items being used generally comes in contact with the hands that may be dirty. Sometime it is possible that bacteria present in the hands of employees working in Park Plaza Riverbank London transfers into one another as when they shake hand or touches any common place within the enterprise.
Therefore, it directly leads to cross contamination and by taking precautions well in advance it is possible to control it. So, it is necessary that staff members may wash hands every time before leaving the work area or at the time of working in kitchen (Vladimirov, 2011). Personal hygiene also takes into consideration keeping the nails of the finger clean as it is well known fact that short finger nails always reduces the chances of transfer of harmful micro-organisms in the food. In short it can be said that when corrective actions are taken in favour of personal hygiene then chances of food contamination decreases and in turn right quality of product can be served to the customers as per their expectations.
3.4 Evaluation of process of cleaning and disinfection supporting safe food production
Cleaning is regarded as the process of removing dirt from any place or object. Whereas disinfection refers to removal of micro organisms in a place, object or any other external surface of the human body. In the entire food industry the process linked with disinfection and cleaning are developed in order to remove dirt and damage micro organisms that are being present in the appliances and packaging. The process of disinfection and cleaning assist in safe production of food and it can be only done by using different type of chemicals with the help of which food can be saved from being contaminated (Motarjemi, 2013). The process being undertaken supports in cleaning utensils and other equipments that are being used in producing food. By using hygiene utensils food items being prepared are protected from getting spoiled.
3.5 Problems associated with pest control in food premises
Different type of pests are being present that are associated with food and involves mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches. Such pests can directly harm the food items prepared badly due to which food
contamination takes place and it becomes unfit for use. Generally all these type of pests comes from outside environment and sometime found in kitchen of hotels. Many time it is possible that pests may contaminate food and sometime employees working in the organization are unaware about it due to which such type food item is served to customers and causes food poisoning. All these pests can enter into hotel through door and windows as they are are the only places through which it is possible for them to enter into hotel (Liu, Kerr and Hobbs, 2012). Further, they are commonly found in places that are not clean such as around dustbins etc. Due to this basic reason pest control is important which is basically done by private contractors and this reduces the chances of food contamination due to presence of pests. Further, it is the duty of management to ensure that proper control measures are taken timely and the areas that leads to occurrence of pests must be monitored for the welfare of organization and in turn leads to favourable results. Therefore, through pest control hygiene food can be served to customers.
4.1 Produce a food hazard risk assessment
Different type of food should be preserved as per the controlling system and temperature so that it can better be served to range of people (Shames, 2009). Risk assessment process is essential for food preservation since that aids in enhancing the amount of quality. Park Plaza Riverbank hotel should identify food that posses threat to human body if not preserved in sufficient systems. Bacteria always impedes the quality of food and as a result people looses their immunity power.
4.2 Complete a food safety control system
As per the training module, several systems for food safety control are discussed so that the best can be implemented in Park Plaza Riverbank hotel. This could also assist the hotel to reduce the degree of customer complaints.
Quality assurance from suppliers: In order to deliver prominent services to the clients, suppliers have to make sure that they are delivering satisfied amenities to the hotel.
Auditing: With the help of proper auditing, the hotel can identify the areas of improvements as per the operations of the hotel (Food Storage techniques, 2010).
Good manufacturing practice: The hotel must comply to good manufacturing practices in which it should consider all the guidelines which are being determined by the food agencies in terms of controlling and measuring the quality of food
Risk assessment: It is basically a systematic process through which the hotel can identify potential risks that are associated in the food production. Along with that, estimated degree of contamination can also be identified; however on the other hand, specific standards can also be determined for proper food services (The 5 best ways to preserve food, 2014).
Food management: Food can be managed in effectual manner with the help of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) as the approach is useful in determining chemical, physical and biological contamination present in the food. This can be done through the process of managing raw materials into finished goods. Furthermore, staff training is also required for making them aware about the legislations and rules involved while providing better services to the consumers (Temperature control, 2014). They can also prevent the food with effective controlling methods and as a result, customer satisfaction can be acquired.
4.3 Devise a food safety guide for legislation compliance
Park Plaza Riverbank hotel should associate the operations with several rules and legislations while preparing the food so that issues related to food poisoning can be avoided. Here is the list of several acts that Park Plaza Riverbank hotel should consider:
Food Labeling Regulations 1996: As per the defined law, the government has made it obligatory for all the food service providers to use only food products which have clear and concise information about the food elements that are being included. Hence the companies are also required to include requisite information on food products so that accordingly, hotels can maintain storage systems while preparing food
Food Safety Act 1990: The food department has developed several standards and benchmarks which the hotels are required to consider while delivering services to the customers. Hence through that quality aspects can be maintained under service provision. The law also states that food should be handled in proper manner for the ultimate safety of consumers.
The Food Regulation 2006: As per the regulation, it is essential for every food service provider to posses license while delivering food to the clients (Lawley, Curtis and Davis, 2012). Through such license, the hotel can maintain controlling measures for the food which can contaminate in the hotel premise. As per the law, the hotel is restricted to sell raw milk for consumption.
Apart from that two agencies are also discussed likewise: Food Standard Agency which fulfills the responsibilities related to hygienic aspects and food safety in UK. The main emphasis is being given on food safety. Another agency is Health Protection Agency which is a part of Public Health England and it works with the aim of managing health of country by improving the issues of inequalities (Wallace, 2014).
Articulating the entire study, it can be said that there are various elements that affects the quality of food; hence in order to avoid all that, suitable methods should be undertaken. Food products should be kept separately in different utensils and alongside frequent washing of sea food and non vegetarian food should be facilitated. However along with all these techniques, chefs and food service providers are also required to consider personal hygiene for optimum quality of food. Hence from the discussion, it is evident that hospitality industry requires better management for food since they directly deal with needs of customers.
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